Archaeology Disproves the Bible:
1. Adm and Eve 6,000-Year-Old humanity Myth:
Genetic ‘Adam’ and ‘Eve’ Uncovered: https://www.livescience.com/38613-genetic-adam-and-eve-uncovered.html
“Researchers believe that modern humans left Africa between 60,000 and 200,000 years ago, and that the mother of all women likely emerged from East Africa. But beyond that, the details get fuzzy.” ref
Y-chromosomal Adam or human genetics Y-DNA most recent common ancestor (160,000-300,000 years ago): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-chromosomal_Adam
Mitochondrial Eve or human genetics mt-DNA most recent common ancestor (100,000–230,000 years ago): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitochondrial_Eve
Did a discrete event 200,000-100,000 years ago produce modern humans: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22658331/?fbclid=IwAR1BjrR4iyHHaDebdPobOJY9jhJJCF2tsAmjp-WUPjMVosvHNs0UPzgkbIU
“Scenarios for modern human origins are often predicated on the assumption that modern humans arose 200,000-100,000 years ago in Africa. This assumption implies that something ‘special’ happened at this point in time in Africa, such as the speciation that produced Homo sapiens, a severe bottleneck in human population size, or a combination of the two. The common thread is that after the divergence of the modern human and Neandertal evolutionary lineages ∼400,000 years ago, there was another discrete event near in time to the Middle-Late Pleistocene boundary that produced modern humans. Alternatively, modern human origins could have been a lengthy process that lasted from the divergence of the modern human and Neandertal evolutionary lineages to the expansion of modern humans out of Africa, and nothing out of the ordinary happened 200,000-100,000 years ago in Africa. Three pieces of biological (fossil morphology and DNA sequences) evidence are typically cited in support of discrete event models. First, living human mitochondrial DNA haplotypes coalesce ∼200,000 years ago. Second, fossil specimens that are usually classified as ‘anatomically modern’ seem to appear shortly afterward in the African fossil record. Third, it is argued that these anatomically modern fossils are morphologically quite different from the fossils that preceded them.” ref
2. The Bible flood myth:
3. The myth of the Exodus:
4. The myth of conquering the land of Canaan; the land which the tribes of Israel supposedly conquered after the supposed Exodus from Egypt (such as the lie of Jericho):
5. The bible myth about a ‘United Monarchy’ full of splendor and power – the period of Saul, David and Solomon–as presented in the biblical account.
Archaeology disproves the all the beginning of the bible thus discredits all Abrahamic religions are based on it, so this includes Jewish, Christian, Muslim, Mormon, etc.
Faith seems to be found among the foolish but is an imprisoned tormented fool among the wise. Faith is like the Gloryhole of bad thinking and the Champion of unsupported beliefs. I reject the notion that humans are born with the inclination for Religion. Rather, we are born with a superstitious Animism thinking mind until the age of about 7 years old and it is out of this childlike daydreaming that Religion emerges with the help of people desiring to control.
The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, involves leading scholars Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman who draw on recent archaeological research to present a dramatically revised portrait of ancient Israel and its neighbors. They argue that crucial evidence (or a telling lack of evidence) at digs in Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon suggests that many of the most famous stories in the Bible—the wanderings of the patriarchs, the Exodus from Egypt, Joshua’s conquest of Canaan, and David and Solomon’s vast empire—reflect the world of the later authors rather than actual historical facts. What they argue, in chapter after chapter, is that these books of the Bible make the most sense as coming out of a seventh-century (BC) context. A lot of the Bible is royal and elite propaganda to justify empire expanding through conquest. Overall the differing archaeology evidence and the complete lack of any confirming archaeology evidence is devastating to all the Abrahamic religions. Ref
Some stories in the Bible were meant to be history, others fiction. But modernity has obscured the original distinction between the two kinds of biblical writing, depriving readers of the depth of the text. Perhaps surprisingly, this confusion lies at the heart of the History Channel’s miniseries “The Bible,” which continues the pattern of blurring history and fiction, and thereby misrepresenting the nature of the Bible to its viewers. One way to understand the difference between history and fiction in the Bible is through the Old Testament’s natural division into three parts:
- The world and its nature (Adam to Terah).
- The Israelites and their purpose (Abraham to Moses).
- The Kingdom of Israel and life in Jerusalem (roughly from King David onward).
Even a cursory look reveals a clear and significant pattern. In the first section, characters live many hundreds of years, and in the second, well into their second century. Only in the third section do biblical figures tend to live biologically reasonable lives. For example, Adam, in the first section, lives to the symbolic age of 930, and Noah lives even twenty years longer than that. Abraham, from the second section, lives to be 175, his son Issac to 180, and Jacob “dies young” at the age of 147. But the lifespans from King David onward, in the third section, are in line with generally accepted human biology. Furthermore, historians mostly agree that only the third section represents actual history. The reasonable ages in the third section of the Bible, and, in particular, the wildly exaggerated ages in the first, suggest that the authors of the Old Testament intended only the third part as history. Underscoring this crucial difference, some of the lifespans in the first two sections are so absurd as to defy literal interpretation. These hugely advanced ages are central clues about the point of the stories. The Old Testament contains a wide range of texts in addition to stories: laws, prayers, moral codes, and more. But even the stories come in more than one variety. Noah and the Great Flood are not in the same category as Moses and the Ten Commandments, and both are different than King David and the First Temple. History and fiction mingle throughout the Old Testament, so these divisions are just rough guides. Jeremiah’s historical description of the siege on Jerusalem is not the same as Ezekiel’s non-historical vision of the dry bones, just as there are historical elements (like the invention of fire-hardened bricks) even in the non-historical account of the Tower of Babel. The interesting point here is not that some of these stories happened and some didn’t (though that’s almost certainly true). The point is that the Bible itself portrays them differently, only presenting some of them as having happened. In other words, sometimes “believing the Bible” means believing that a story in it didn’t happen. The situation not unlike a modern newspaper, which combines news with opinion, puzzles, comics, etc. The news can be accurate even if the comics are not. The same is true for the different parts of the Bible. The New Testament similarly offers more than just stories, and, as with the Old Testament, only some of the stories in the New Testament were meant as history. Others were intended to convey things like theology and morality. The account of Jesus’ life in the Gospels is not the same as the beast in Revelation or Adam’s life in Genesis. (The issue of different categories for Jesus and Adam is a matter of fierce modern debate because of its potential theological significance and its interaction with the theory of evolution.) All of this is important for people who want to believe, for instance, that a man named Jesus was crucified in ancient Jerusalem (as described in the Gospels) even if they don’t believe that a donkey spoke aloud (Numbers); or that Jews lived in Jerusalem during the first millennium BC (Kings, for example) even if they didn’t leave Egypt 600,000 strong (Exodus). Ref
The Bible imagines the religion of ancient Israel as purely monotheistic. And doubtless there were Israelites, particularly those associated with the Jerusalem Temple, who were strict monotheists. But the archaeological evidence (and the Bible, too, if you read it closely enough) suggests that the monotheism of many Israelites was far from pure. For them, Yahweh (the name of the Israelite god) was not the only divinity. Some Israelites believed that Yahweh had a female consort. And many Israelites invoked the divinity with the help of images, particularly figurines. I call this Israelite religion pagan Yahwism. The archaeological evidence we will look at comes mostly from Judah in what is known in archaeological terms as the Assyrian period, the span from 721 B.C.E., when the Assyrians destroyed the northern kingdom of Israel, until 586 B.C.E., when the Babylonians conquered Jerusalem, destroyed the Temple and brought an end to the Davidic dynasty in Judah. This period, to put it into perspective, is several centuries after King Solomon built the Jerusalem Temple in about 950 B.C.E. So the archaeological evidence we are about to discuss documents a level of Israelite paganism long after Solomon built an exclusive home for Israel’s god. While Yahweh was the god of the Israelites, other nations had their own national gods. The chief god of the Phoenicians was Ba‘al. For the Philistines, the chief god was at first Dagon and later also Ba‘al (Judges 16:23; 2 Kings 1:2). For the Ammonites it was Milkom. For the Moabites, Chemosh. For the Edomites, Qos. And for the Israelites and Judahites—Yahweh. Except for the Edomite god Qos, who appears only in the archaeological record, all of these gods are mentioned in the Bible (1 Kings 11:5, 7, 33). Interestingly, while each nation’s chief god had a distinctive name, his consort, the chief female deity, had the same name in all these cultures: Asherah or its variants Ashtoreth or Astarte. (As we shall see, this was even true of Yahweh’s consort.) Not only was the female consort the same, the various nations used the same cult objects, the same types of incense altars made of stone and clay, the same bronze and clay censers, cult stands and incense burners, the same chalices and goblets and the same bronze and ivory rods adorned with pomegranates. It was easy to take cult vessels of one deity and place them in the service of another one—and this was commonly done. Ref
If we propose to study the history of the religion of ancient Israel, we must be governed by the same postulates that are the basis of modern historical method. Our task must be a historical, not a theological, enterprise. We must trace the origins and development of Israel’s religion, its emergence from its West Semitic, particularly Canaanite, past, its continuities with the past, its innovations, individual or peculiar configurations, its new emergent whole, and its subsequent changes and evolution. In the past historical questions of “origins” or “emergence” of the ancient Israelite religion could not be answered satisfactorily and indeed were rarely addressed. Today, thanks to the archaeological exploration of Israel and neighboring lands, the history of Israel has become part of the history of the ancient Near Eastern world. Israel’s ancient literature can be viewed increasingly as evolving out of the genres of kindred literatures. We possess Northwest Semitic epic literature from a century or so before Moses. The religion of Israel can now be described in its continuities with, and in its contrasts with, contemporary Near Eastern and especially West Semitic mythology and cult. Ref
My blogs on the Bible, Judaism, and Christianity
- Sedentism and the Creation of goddesses around 12,000 years ago as well as male gods after 7,000 years ago.
- Progressed organized religion starts, an approximately 5,000-year-old belief system
- When was the beginning: TIMELINE OF CURRENT RELIGIONS? Around 4,000 years ago.
- What is early monotheism, are Atenism and Zoroastrianism totally monotheistic?
- Creationism (pseudoscience)
- Creationism is a Debunked Religious Conspiracy Theory.
- List of Creation Myths?
- Evolution is FACT in many ways!
- Is Evolution a Theory or a Fact? “It is both.”
- Technological Advances in Evolution
- Dating the BIBLE: naming names and telling times (written less than 3,000 years ago, provable to 2,200 years ago)
- Genetic studies on Jewish DNA is not 6,000 years old but has origin links to about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago?
- Everyone Killed in the Bible Flood? “Nephilim” (giants)?
- Bible Cosmology is Laughable
- Flat Earth Mania: a debunked religious theory, given new life in the post-truth world
- Attacking Biblical Statements for a “fixed” and “immovable” Earth
- No “dinosaurs and humans didn’t exist together just because some think they are in the bible itself”
- Is bible god ethical? & Would It Be Bad or Good if God Exists? (axiological “value theory” questions)
- Animistic, Totemistic, and Paganistic Superstition Origins of bible god and the bible’s Religion.
- Jews, Judaism, and the Origins of Some of its Ideas
- Jews enslaved in Egypt is Myth…..
- Sexism in Judaism (old Testament)
- Hey, Damien dude, I have a question for you regarding “the bible” Exodus.
- Evil bible god? YES OF COURSE
- Is god choiceless or standardless or removed from ethics?
- Axiological Atheism Morality Critique: of the bible god
- Your god concept is vile…
- Bible god repented of Evil?
- God the unethical father?
- David’s Punishment for Rape? God’s “Forgiveness and Baby Killing ” (2 Samuel 12:11-14)
- “hi, enemy of god” – Challenger
- Christian Hate Groups?
- God Originated Mortality?
- Faith and the Three Stooges: bhagavad-gita, bible & quran
- So the 10 commandments isn’t anything to go by either right?
- Interview with Jeff Tadlock (Stairway To Reason)
- Horned female shamans and Pre-satanism Devil/horned-god Worship? at least 10,000 years ago
- 9,000-8,500 year old Female shaman Bad Dürrenberg Germany
- Satanism More or Less
- The Devil?
- Devil, Satan, Lucifer, and the Serpent? Guess What They are Not the Same.
- Are All Religions That Existed Before Christianity From the Devil?
- The King James Mistakes Lucifer as Satan
- Accurate Account on how did Christianity Began?
- Bill Zuersher and his book “Seeing through Christianity: A Critique of Beliefs and Evidence”
- Archaeology Disproves the Bible
- I Believe Archaeology, not Myths & Why Not, as the Religious Myths Already Violate Reason!
- Did a Volcano Inspire the bible god?
- Bible Battle, Just More, Bible Babble
- The Jericho Conquest lie?
- Traces of Totemism In Judaism
- Canaanites and Israelites?
- Was Noah’s Ark found on Mount Ararat as claimed by Ron Wyatt? No, of course not.
- Accurate Account on how did Christianity Began?
- Christian 35 years, read the bible twice, and took two religious classes before the conclusion of atheism.
- Compare and Contrast (religious and non-religious)
- Losing My Religion and MY Faith Addiction
- A Christian supporter, Damien Marie AtHope is winning fans but dredging up Old Adversaries?
- christofascism (christian and fascism) as well as religiofascism (religion and fascism)
- What makes Atheism a better way of thinking in life?
- Damien, I’m open AND a Christian!
- Incapable of making a decision on if there is or not a god?
- It’s Not the Deity You See as Possible But How Many You Reject
- Christians Don’t Believe the Entire Bible
- Muslim Terrorists and Christian Terrorists?
- True Christian® ???
- What is bible and Who is jesus???
- Rethinking Jesus?
- Jesus Christ Wanted for producing the hate and fear literature, the so-called “Holy Bible?”
- The Bible shows a racist character of jESUS who was not god but was a bigot “if real”
- jESUS (a fake story) explained as a real bigot but not a gOD
- The bible god Myth is Not True but The Prejudice is.
- Paulism vs Jesus
- Please explain why anyone would follow jesus’ teachings?
- Christianity Believers: Consider This
- Let’s talk about Christianity.
- Misinformed christian
- Dealing with Presuppositionalism, a school of Christian apologetics (Fascistic Fideism or “faith-ism”)
- Bible Defender?
- How Caring and Unconditionally Loving is the bible god Character?
- The So-Called Love of bible god is Actually a Pseudo Love.
- Sexism in Christianity (New Testament)
- New Testament: bigotry, cruelty, sexism, slavery, racism, etc.
- Slavery, Racism, Religion and the Confederate Flag
- New Testament on Slavery
- Rape, Sexism, and Religion?
- Was the Value of Ancient Women Different?
- Sexism in the BIBLE: chapter and verse!
- Sexism in Catholicism
- Sexism in Protestantism
- Sexism in Mormonism
- Sexism in Jehovah Witness
- Feminist atheists as far back as the 1800s?
- Anti-theism makes no logical sense?
- Out of Africa: “the evolution of religion seems tied to the movement of people”
- The Evolution of Religion and Removing the Rationale of Faith
- Explaining My thoughts on the Evolution of Religion
- Speech on the Evolution of Religion & Religious Sexism
- Understanding Religion Evolution: Animism, Totemism, Shamanism, Paganism & Progressed organized religion
- Addressing a Theistic Philosopher with Fallacious Thinking
- Caring firebrand atheism vs. Christian nationalism and dominionism
- Caring Firebrand Axiological Atheist, Antitheist, and Antireligionist as a Valuized Ethical Duty.
- Firebrand Atheist Dealing with Christian, Threat Prayers
- “Damien, you are a strong atheist. I am wondering do you see yourself as better than theists?”
- Warning Churchs, I am coming to Indiana as a firebrand atheist to do activism.
- Thoughts on Death: Christian turned Atheist
- Let’s talk about Hell
- Hell claims debunk LOVING gods?
- The claim of hell are ridiculous and immoral, not just false.
- Debunking both Positive (HEAVEN) and Negative (HELL) near death experiences.
- Near Death Experiences is Brain Activity, not Supernatural
- Hell is not a source of science, Satan says
- Threats of Hell are Humanistically Wrong
- Hell, Heaven and the Power of Imagination.
- Preposterous Idea of a Deity that Would Create Hell
- Scary Beasts In Heaven?
- Value-blindness Gives Rise to Sociopathic evil.
- Axiological Ethics not Pseudo Morality
- Yes, Your Male God is Ridiculous
- Single God Religions (Monotheism) = Man-o-theism started around 4,000 years ago?
- Kultepe? An archaeological site with a 4,000 years old women’s rights document.
- Religion is Conspiracy Theories of Reality, Not Worth Believing In
- I Hate Religion Just as I Hate all Pseudoscience
- Sumerian Creator Being was a Female, not Male possibly around 6,000 years ago or more
- The Disproof Atheism Society: EMPIRICAL, CONCEPTUAL, and DISPROOFS of gOD
- I Blaspheme the Unreal Unholy Bible Spirit called gOD
- When you say “GOD,” what do you mean by god?
- Who knows what a “god-claim” really is?
- Fibonacci sequence as scientific evidence of a creator?
- Sorry You Have No Evidence
- god Claims are a Non-Reality Commodity
- What do you mean by god Evidence?
- You will always fail to prove a specific god?
- Arguments over the term god?
- Vague Theism or god Somethingism: just say NO
- Faith is Not Evidence of Reality
- What is a gOD Challenge
- Addressing “ATHEISM”, reasons for it and its possible types/styles
- Using Ontology to Attack Theistic Errors
- You say you believe in a possibility of your favored god-claim?
- Why are all gods unjustified?
- What is a god? Just a Empty Label.
- gOD Believer, Pease Think Critically
- The God Fallacy
- Religion and Science are Completely Different Epistemologies
- Doubt god(s)? No, I stopped believing Fairytales.
- Damien, is it possible, there’s a God you haven’t considered?
- Archaeological, Scientific, & Philosophic evidence shows the god myth is man-made nonsense.
- I am an Axiological Atheist, with a Rationalist Persuasion, who Supports Anarcho-Humanism
- Fideism/Faith-ism (“faith-drunk-thinkers”)
- Truth Navigation and the fallacy of Fideism “faith-ism”
- Interview with the editor for Canadian Atheist
- Interview EP (55) Mark Lee secular humanist agnostic atheist activist antitheist from Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada)
- Guest post: Atheism’s Conclusion by Rational Thinking” by Marquis Amon
- Atheophobia and a Challenger to the Term
- Talking Atheism: Arael Avinu of Fully DE/converted and Caring Firebrand Atheist, Damien Marie AtHope
- Rationalism and the Enlightenment
- Challenging Agnosticism Assumptions
- The Fun of Harassing Street Preachers. Counter-Protesting is Fun.
- Religion harm and a way to stop it’s Rights Violations?
- Turning a Theist Attack into a Chance for Their New Learning: “an open dialog”
- Freedom of Religion, not Coercive Hereditary Religion
- Self-ownership, Human Rights, and Societal Liberty or Freedoms
- Self-ownership/Body-ownership: Sexual Consent, Abortion, Genital Mutilation, Prostitution, Drugs, and the Right to Die
- “No gODs, No Masters”
- Screw All Religions and Their Toxic lies, they are all fraud
- A Rational Mind Values Humanity and Rejects Religion and Gods
- CRITICAL THINKING: Discernment Detachment Delineation
- No Worship No Bullshit
- The Beginning origins of Atheistic Doubt at least by around 2,500 years ago.
- Confusions in Atheism and Humanism
- How Do I Gain a Morality Persuasion or Make a Change to it?
- Variations of Human Interaction: ethical, unethical, good, bad, or evil?
- THE SOUL OF LIBERTY: “The Universal Ethic of Freedom and Human Rights” By Fred E. Foldvary
- “My correspondence with a believer in souls”
- Energy = god, spirits, and/or afterlife? NO, and such thinking is misplaced animism magical thinking nonsense.
- Damien, What’s Worse Christians or Spiritual Non-religious?
- Religion and Poverty?
- Prosperity theology: donating money increases wealth?
- As an atheist what do you believe happens when you die?
- Grief While Having Atheistic Disbelief
- Religious OCD Subtype?
- Religious Trauma Syndrome?
- “You” are religious “You” are in a cult!
- Addressing Destructive Cults?
Israel 13,000 years ago?
A 13,000-year-old brewery found in Israel, the consumption of fermented and alcoholic beverages is one of the most prevalent human behaviors, but the time and cultural context of its origins remain unclear but it is usually associated with fermenting domesticated species in agricultural societies, such as ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, and South America. It has long been speculated that humans’ thirst for beer may have been the stimulus behind cereal domestication, and some scientists have attributed this invention to the Natufians, a Neolithic culture that inhabited the Levant region of the eastern Mediterranean from about 15,000 to 11,700 years ago. And as stated by Stanford University researcher Dr. Li Liu, “Alcohol making and food storage were among the major technological innovations that eventually led to the development of civilizations in the world, and archaeological science is a powerful means to help reveal their origins and decode their contents.” The archaeologists analyzed residues from 13,000-year-old stone mortars found in Raqefet Cave, a Natufian burial cave site located near what is now Haifa, Israel. Their analysis confirmed that these mortars were used for brewing of wheat/barley, as well as for food storage. A Natufian burial area was found with about 30 individuals; a wealth of small finds such as flint tools, animal bones and ground stone implements, and about 100 stone mortars and cupmarks. The Natufians exploited at least seven plant types associated with the mortars, including wheat or barley, oat, legumes and bast fibers (including flax). They used bedrock mortars for pounding and cooking plant-foods, and for brewing wheat/barley-based beer, likely served in ritual feasts 13,000 years ago. Jiajing Wang, a doctoral student at Stanford University said, “Ancient beer is far from what we drink today. It was most likely a multi-ingredient concoction like porridge or thin gruel.” It is presumed that beer brewing may have been, at least in part, an underlying motivation to cultivate cereals in the southern Levant, supporting the beer hypothesis proposed by archaeologists more than six decades ago. http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/raqefet-cave-brewery-06412.html
Israel 12,000 years ago?
Shaman burial in Israel 12,000 years ago and the Shamanism Phenomena. Evidence of a ritual feast at a 12,000-year-old archaeological site in northern Israel. No houses, fireplaces or cooking areas were recovered. Instead, the cave yielded the skeletal remains of at least 28 individuals interred in three pits and two small structures. One of these structures contained the complete skeleton of an older woman, who we interpreted as a shaman based on her special treatment at death. Her grave stood apart due to its fine construction—the walls were plastered with clay and inset with flat stone slabs. Even more remarkable was the eclectic array of animal body parts buried alongside of her. The pelvis of a leopard, the wing tip of an eagle, the skulls of two martens and many other unusual body parts surrounded her skeleton. The butchered remnants of more than 90 tortoises buried in the grave and the leftovers of at least three wild cattle deposited in a second adjacent depression excavated in the cave floor represent the remains of a funeral feast. The outstanding preservation of the grave enabled us to detect multiple phases of a ritual performance that included the consumption of the feast, the burial of the woman, and the filling of the grave in several stages, including the intentional deposition of garbage from the feast. https://www.newsweek.com/ancient-israel-ritual-site-12000-year-old-skeletons-earliest-evidence-holiday-753861
Israel 11,000 years ago?
While transiting from hunting to farming, prehistoric people were strip-mining Kaizer Hill for flint and limestone, say, archaeologists. An 11,000-year old quarry where prehistoric people sourced the flint for their arrows and spearheads and limestone too has been identified between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. The works provide evidence that well before prehistoric humans settled down, they were capable of manufacturing on what we can only call an industrial scale. The quarry, found on the 300 meter-high hill Kaizer Hill on the outskirts of Modiin, is the earliest known Neolithic quarry in the southern Levant, though other prehistoric quarries have been found in the area, including an evidently much older one from the lower-middle Paleolithic period, in Sde Ilan. The marks on Kaizer Hill’s bedrock had been recognized as manmade in the past. The innovation now is reinterpreting “cup-marks” in the bedrock. They aren’t some remnants or mortars carved into the rock, apparently, but were caused by the Neolithic men digging out suitable rocks. https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/11-000-year-old-neolithic-quarry-found-1.5426850
Israel 10,000 years ago?
Not by Bread alone, Neolithic People in Israel first to farm Fava Beans, 10,000 years ago. Heaps of charred beans found in northern Israel prove that prehistoric humans grew legumes as a staple crop before they cultivated grains. Israelis mix them into their hummus. Egyptians eat them mashed for breakfast. It turns out both are following a proud tradition: A new study strongly suggests that humans living in the Galilee first domesticated fava beans more than 10,000 years ago, eating them as a staple well before grain began to be cultivated in the area. Fava beans, also known as broad beans, are the only crop known to have been domesticated in what is today Israel. https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/fava-beans-farmed-in-israel-10k-years-ago-1.5408015
Israel 9,000 years ago?
A sprawling, prosperous Neolithic village dated to 9,000 years ago has been discovered in Motza, at the foot of the Jerusalem hills. The site, featuring dozens of stone houses, grander buildings that may have been temples, and skeletal remains were discovered serendipitously during works ahead of building a new road. People were still transitioning from hunting-gathering to farming when this vast town with stone houses and red-floored gathering sites arose by Jerusalem. Red temple floors, it seems the Neolithic villagers made their stone bricks crudely, using flint tools, and apparently rammed wooden stakes into cracks in the natural rock to break it. The stone bricks were cemented with mud, which means that every time the winter rainy season came around, the walls would need maintenance. The town was built at the confluence of two streams. These village builders 9,000 years ago were among the early adopters of a settled lifestyle. Though some stabs at cultivation clearly began in the Levant at least 23,000 years ago, it would take millennia before people transitioned more firmly from hunting and gathering for subsistence to farming. The Motza site isn’t the only huge settlement from that time, though there are others, mainly in Jordan. https://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium.MAGAZINE-9-000-year-old-neolithic-city-discovered-in-jerusalem-valley-1.6271740
Israel 8,000 years ago?
Around 8,000-year-old fertility, stone works found in Israel linked to ancestor cult. About 8,000 years ago, Stone Age people built a large number of what seem to be ancestor and fertility cult sites in the Negev Desert in Israel. A new archaeological survey of 95 sites has turned up stones arranged to represent death, while vulva- and penis-shaped rocks and stone arrangements suggest fertility. In combination these death and sex arrangements relate to ancestor cults, the lead researcher said. Little is known of the spiritual and religious activities of the people of this region from the Neolithic. The main essence of the cult in these sites was for the ancestors, though with the ‘regular’ standing stones found in the sites, individual ones, pairs, triads, and groups of seven, may also indicate invocation to a complex pantheon with several ‘organic’ groups of deities which are later known from Near Eastern art, dedication inscriptions and mythological texts. Since the sites are dated long before the invention of writing, we have no way to know deities’ names, we only know which type of groups the standing stones represent, for example, a god and a goddess, a goddess and two young gods etc. https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/8000-year-old-fertility-stone-works-found-israel-cult-020211
Israel 7,000 years ago?
Israeli archaeologists have unearthed a 7,000-year-old settlement in northern Jerusalem. excavation exposed two houses with well-preserved remains and floors containing pottery vessels, flint tools, and a basalt bowl. The items are representative of the early Chalcolithic period, beginning around 5,000 B.C. Similar developments have been found elsewhere in present-day Israel, but not in Jerusalem until this, seeming to express an established society. Very well organized settlement with cemeteries. The excavation covered an area of about 500 square feet. https://www.tweentribune.com/article/tween56/archaeologists-find-ancient-7000-year-old-settlement/?page=4
Israel 6,500–5,800 years ago?
6,500–5,800 years ago in Israel Late Chalcolithic (Copper Age) Period in the Southern Levant Seems to Express Northern Levant Migrations, Cultural and Religious Transfer. The Levant which may refer to Isreal in a common use way generally includes Cyprus, Syria, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine and the Northern Sinai Peninsula. DNA evidence expresses waves of migration from Anatolia and the Zagros mountains (today’s Turkey and Iran) to the Levant helped develop the Chalcolithic culture that existed in Israel’s Upper Galilee region some 6,500 years ago. ref This was a time of great development along with the spread of agriculture from Western Asia throughout Southern and Central Europe. Urban cultures in Mesopotamia and Anatolia flourished, developing the wheel. Copper ornaments became more common, marking the beginning of the Chalcolithic. Animal husbandry spread throughout Eurasia, reaching China. World population grew slightly throughout the millennium, possibly from 5 to 7 million people. ref “After 10 years of research, we understand that Anatolia/Turkey, especially from the west, is part of the basis of all European peoples. Matching how all European cattle are all descended from Iranian cattle dispersed by farmer herders leaving Anatolia/Turkey.” – Joachim Burger – Anthropologist & Population Geneticist Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I2vYr6gx56o&t=651s
Israel 5,000 years ago?
5,000 years ago, the Canaanites now generally recognize as Israel, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. The Canaanites created the first alphabet, established colonies throughout the Mediterranean, and were mentioned many times in the Bible. But who were they and what ultimately happened to them? Were they annihilated like the Bible says? Over 90 percent of the genetic ancestry of present-day Lebanese was derived from the Canaanites referenced from the genomes of five Canaanite individuals who lived almost 4,000 years ago, one in a large jar burial along with genomes representing people from modern-day Lebanon, in addition a small proportion of Eurasian ancestry that may have arrived via conquests by distant populations such as the Assyrians, Persians, or Macedonians. An estimate that new Eurasian people mixed with the Canaanite population about 3,800 to 2,200 years ago at a time when there were many conquests of the region from outside. “The Bible reports the destruction of the Canaanite cities and the annihilation of its people; if true, the Canaanites could not have directly contributed genetically to present-day populations. However, no archaeological evidence has so far been found to support the widespread destruction of Canaanite cities between the Bronze and Iron Ages. We show that present-day Lebanese derive most of their ancestry from a Canaanite-related population, which therefore implies substantial genetic continuity in the Levant since at least the Bronze Age.” the study read. http://www.cell.com/ajhg/fulltext/S0002-9297(17)30276-8, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/07/170727122039.htm
Israel 4,000 years ago?
A ceramic vessel bearing the sculpture of a pensive-looking figure, a 4,000-Year-Old ‘Thinker’ Sculpture found in the Israeli city of Yehud. It seems that at first the jug, which is typical of the period, was prepared, and afterward, the unique sculpture was added. Researchers discovered the vessel alongside other items, including arrowheads, an axe head, sheep bones, daggers and what appear to be donkey bones. These were likely funerary objects, originally buried alongside the body of an important person. Deeper excavations revealed artifacts dating back at least 6,000 years. These included pottery vessels, flint and basalt tools, and animal bones, according to the IAA. Researchers also found a Copper Age butter churn. Archaeologists discovered the unusual jug in fragments, and IAA conservators restored it. The neck of the jug provides the “seat” for the pensive figure, Itach said. The archaeologists said they aren’t sure whether the original potter made the figure or if some other artist decided to add an embellishment to the plain jug. The artifact comes from around 2000 B.C., the Middle Bronze Age in the Levant (the region including modern-day Israel and the eastern Mediterranean). According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, this was a time when nomadic people called Amorites settled throughout the northern part of the region and when traders shuttled back and forth between the Levant and Egypt. https://www.livescience.com/56986-ancient-thinker-sculpture-uncovered-in-israel.html
Israel 3,000 years ago?
Signs of 3,000-year-old Oracle Cult in Ancient Israel. Abel Beth Maacah was famed in biblical times for conflict resolution: Now archaeologists have found a strange shrine that may have served the city’s ‘wise woman.’ Archaeologists have found a strange shrine that they think may have been associated with the “wise woman” of the city, mentioned in the bible. But rather than being just a clever elder – they suspect she may have fulfilled an oracular role. The tell in which Abel Beth Maacah was identified lies just south of Israel’s border with Lebanon, near the town of Metulla. The archaeological mound, called Tell Abil el-Qameh, covers a huge 100 dunams in area. In fact, archaeologists have uncovered evidence for a succession of religious cult practices spanning some 300 years. Numerous shrines were found, which, as is the norm for ancient spots of worship, were ornate in some fashion or other. But among the discoveries in recent excavations was an unadorned shrine, the only one of its type found in the town. The reasons to associate the bare shrine with an oracle stem from puzzling biblical mentions of a “wise woman”. The archaeologists now suspect that at least in the case of Abel Beth Maacah, she was a local version of the divine oracles known from other cultures around the Mediterranean. Various ruins found during the latest excavations, roughly dated to the second and first millennia B.C.E. Aside from the shrine, the archaeologists found a large building complex dating to about 3,000 years ago that served diverse industrial, administrative and religious functions. https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/.premium.MAGAZINE-signs-of-3-000-year-old-oracle-cult-found-in-israel-archaeology-1.6472911
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